On July 29, 2016, DHS published a final rule expanding the availability of the provisional unlawful presence waiver to individuals who would be statutorily eligible for an unlawful presence waiver under INA §212(a)(9)(B)(v). The rule also makes additional changes to the current provisional waiver process. The following provides background information on the unlawful presence bars, the provisional waiver process and an overview of the changes that will be implemented as of the effective date of the rule, August 29, 2016.
Q: What Are the “Unlawful Presence” Bars to Admissibility?
A: Under INA §212(a)(9)(B), a person who has accrued more than 180 days of “unlawful presence” in the United States is subject to a 3-year bar to readmission that is triggered upon departure from the United States. A person who has accrued one year or more of unlawful presence will trigger a 10-year bar to readmission. “Unlawful presence” is a term of art that is not defined in the regulations. On May 6, 2009, USCIS rescinded its prior unlawful presence guidance and issued a 51-page consolidated unlawful presence memorandum with corresponding updates to the USCIS Adjudicator’s Field Manual.
In general, individuals who have an approved immigrant visa petition, but who are present in the United States without having been inspected and admitted or paroled, are ineligible to adjust their status to lawful permanent resident (LPR) while remaining in the United States. Instead, such individuals must leave the United States and apply for an immigrant visa at a U.S. Embassy or consulate abroad. However, as described above, departure may trigger a 3- or 10-year bar to readmission. As a general matter, the 3- or 10-year bar to readmission may be waived, under INA §212(a)(9)(B)(v), if the applicant can demonstrate that the refusal of his or her admission would cause “extreme hardship” to a U.S. citizen or LPR spouse or parent.
Q: What Is a Provisional Waiver and How Is it Different from a Regular Waiver?
A: Prior to 2013, when the provisional waiver process was implemented, an individual who departed the United States to apply for an immigrant visa at a U.S. embassy or consulate, and who was found inadmissible based on prior unlawful presence, could only apply for a waiver of inadmissibility by filing the Form I-601, Application for Waiver of Grounds of Inadmissibility, with USCIS, and only after a consular officer made a finding of inadmissibility at the visa interview. In 2013, in recognition of the hardships that are imposed upon American families during the lengthy separation that often accompanies the “regular” waiver process, USCIS published a final rule implementing a new “provisional” unlawful presence waiver. The provisional waiver process allows an applicant who knows he or she will be subject to the 3- or 10-year bar upon departure to apply for “provisional” approval of an unlawful presence waiver prior to departing the United States for the immigrant visa interview. Assuming there are no other eligibility or admissibility issues, an approved provisional waiver should permit a consular officer to issue an immigrant visa without undue delays. In generally the average length of time a person is required to remain outside the United States to await issuance of an immigrant visa following the grant of a provisional waiver is about two weeks. Prior to the implementation of the provisional waiver process, it was not uncommon for individuals to be stuck outside the United States for many months, and sometimes years, while they awaited approval of a waiver.
THE EXPANDED PROVISIONAL WAIVER RULE:
Q: Who Can Apply for a Provisional Waiver Under the 2016 Expanded Provisional Waiver Rule and How Is This Different From the 2013 Rule?
A: A number of changes to the threshold eligibility requir